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ISSUED WEEKLY BY 
THE FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE 
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENTOF AGRICULTURE 

WASH I N GTO N. O.C 



d 
o c 



VOL. 33 



AUGUST 24, 1936 
FEATURE ARTICLE 



NO. 8 



AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT 

(Page 246) 



IN THIS ISSUE 

Page 



Recent wheat and rye production estimates 235 

Canadian wheat quality high 236 

Japanese imports of Australian wheat restricted 237 

Danube Basin rye crop above average 237 

Germany extends regulations covering grain industry 238 

Czechoslovakia continues Grain Monopoly 240 

Chinese cotton crop estimate increased 242 

New Zealand expands tobacco industry 244 

European fruit crop prospects less favorable , 244 

Italy makes initial fruit shipment to Canada 246 



234 



Foreign Crops and Markets 
LATE CABLES 



Vol. 33, Ho. 8 



I ndian, cotton area, first official estimate for 1956-37 , 
placed at 15,769,000 acres compared with estimate of 15,271,000 
acres at this time last year and final total of 25,138,000 acres. 
This estimate 'bo.sed upon reports from areas which in the past have 
averaged 59.1 percent of total cotton area. If past relation holds 
good, final total of 26,682,000 acres is indicated. (Agricultural 
Commissioner P. K. Norris, Bombay, August 17, 1936.) 

N etherlands 1956 production estimates reported as follows, 
with 1935 comparisons in parentheses: Potatoes 88,919,000 bushels 
(97,704,000), sugar beets 1,764, 000 short tons (1,682,000), flax- 
seed 394,000 bushels (273,000). (International Institute of Agri- 
culture, Rone, August 17, 1936.) 

United Kingdom total curod-pork quota for period September 1 
December 31, 1936, revised upward to 1,602,138 cwt. (179,439,456 
pounds) compared with 1,590,683 cwt. (178,156,496 pounds) announced 
in July. United States share 129,773 cwt. (14,534,576 pounds) in- 
stead of 128,845 cwt. (14,430,640 pounds). (London office, Foreign 
Agricultural Service, August 21, 1936.) 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets. 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS 



235 



BREAD GRAINS 

Summary of recent information 

The 1936 wheat crop, as represented "by estimates for 37 countries, 
totals 2,915,470,000 bushels as compared with 3,102,894,000 bushels pro- 
duced by the same countries in 1935. The official estimate for Germany 
was revised downward from 180,042,000 to 176,735,000 "bushels, and indications 
now r point to a crop only about 5,000,000 bushels larger than the production 
of 1935. Estimates for Latvia and Switzerland were also reduced, the crops 
of both countries being considerably under the respective outturns of 1935, 
while the first estimate for Turkey indicates a decrease of 13 percent from 
the harvest of 1935. 

Estimates of the 1936 rye crop, as reported for 13 countries, total 
477,349,000 bushels as against 490,401,000 bushels produced by the same 
countries in 1935. The second official estimate for Germany was placed at 
313,368,000 bushels, which indicates a 6-percent increase over the 1935 
crop, but is 6 percent under the July estimate. Eirst estimates for Latvia 
and Turkey show reductions this season in both countries. 



Current changes in production estimates of wheat and rye 



Country and 


commo di ty 


Reported up to 
Aug. 17, 1936 


Reported up to 
Aug. 24, 1936 


1935 






1,000 bushels 


1,000 bushels 


1,000 bushels 


Fne at 










36 countries 


reported. . . . 


2,843,543 










180,042 


176,735 


171,488 




a/ 7,300 


4,703 


5,824 






5,500 


3,050 


6,520 








80,281 


92,640 


37 countries 


reported. . 




2,915,470 


3,102,894 












11 countries 


reported. . . . 


477,297 










332,513 


313,358 


294,399 








11,653 


14,326 








7 , 544 


8,508 


13 countries 


reported. . . . 




477,349 


490 , 401 



a/ Includes spelt. 



Canadian crop conditions 

The harvesting of wheat is well advanced over the Prairie Provinces 
of Canada, and threshing is proceeding rapidly, although scattered rainfall 



236 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 8 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



delayed operations for a day- or so at several points, according to the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics at Ottawa. The quality of the wheat is ex- 
ceptionally high and, while yields have "been generally in line with recent 
expectations, in some cases they ."have "been a little "better than anticipated. 
Deliveries at country elevators have "been' heavy . 

Precipitation was light over southern areas during the past week, 
but heavy showers were received in northern districts, particularly in 
Alberta. Temperatures continued to be above normal throughout the ■Prov- 
inces. Stem rust is fairly prevalent and will probably cause some injury 
to the wheat. Grasshoppers have migrated to the good crop areas, doing 
some damage to wheat but more to the coarse grains. Injury to wheat was 
lessened by rapid ripening, but damage was suffered at scattered points in 
Alberta. 

The oriental wheat market 

China 

Prices of wheat and flour at Shanghai strengthened during the week 
ended August 14, according to a radiogram from the Shanghai office of the 
Foreign Agricultural Service. The advance in wheat prices resulted from 
further adjustment to high world prices, active demand from local millers, 
and the continued, although rather limited, "buying by Japan. Flour prices 
for early delivery increased slightly, because of fair demand for domestic 
consumption and active demand from Manchuria. There was practically no 
change in futures prices. 

No interest was shown in foreign wheat. Arrivals of better-quality 
domestic wheat, with lower moisture content, were, .almost in sufficient 
volume to meet milling requirements. The mills .continued to operate at 
full capacity, and stocks of flour were accumulating. Spot flour has "been 
selling at a premium of 1 to 2 cents above futures prices, but it is likely 
that this advantage will be lost as stocks continue, to increase. 

Australian wheat was offered at Shanghai at. 121 cents per bushel. 
Domestic spot wheat of the best quality was quoted at 81 cents., . futures 
prices at noon on August 14, were as follows: August 81, September S3, 
October 85, November 86, December 87, January 88 cents per bushel. Domestic 
spot flour was 97 cents per bag of 49 pounds. Futures were quoted as fol- 
lows: August 95, September 96, October 97, November 98, December 99, Jan- 
uary 100 cents per bag. Australian flour, c.i.f. Hong Kong, was $4.48 per 
barrel of 196 pounds. 



August 24, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



237 



CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



Japan 

Prices of wheat and flour continued to advance during July on the 
Tokyo market as a result of higher world prices, according to information 
furnished the Shanghai office "by Consul General Garrels. Domestic wheat 
did not increase in price so much as foreign wheat, and the spread between 
the two was greater than it was i.n the preceding month, "but still somewhat 
less than normal. Imports of wheat declined materially, largely as a re- 
sult of restricted imports from Australia following the new Japanese trade 
law, which limits imports from that country. The marketing of domestic 
wheat has gone forward more rapidly than usual, and the total wheat supply 
at milling centers on August 1 was larger than usual. 

Mills continued to run actively, with domestic flour demand strong 
"but export demand poor, Manchuria, the primary export market for Japanese 
flour, is well supplied with flour, both domestic end Australian, the latter 
having "been delivered upon announcement of restrictive measures taken "by 
Japan against Australian flour and in anticipation of similar action by 
Manchuria. Imports from China have also "been above normal. 

Til/heat was quoted at the mill in Tokyo on August 1 as follows, import 
duty and landing charges included: Western White No, 2, $1.41 per bushel; 
Canadian No. 1, $1.51, No. 3, $1.47; Australian, fair average quality, $1,37; 
Manchurian $1.35; Chinese $1.17 per "bushel. Domestic standard was $1.25 per 
"bushel; Portland, c.i.f. Yokohama, $1.05 per "bushel, duty and landing charges 
excluded. The wholesale 'price of flour at the mill was $1.33 per "bag of 49 
pounds; c.i.f. Dairen, $0,98 per bag. Imports of wheat into Japan during 
June were reported as follows, with 1935 comparisons in parentheses: Prom 
Canada 304,000 bushels (326,000), Australia 128,000 (633,000), Argentina 0 
(185,000), China 2,000 (0), total 434,000 bushels (1,146,000). Exports of 
flour for the month totaled 144,425 barrels as compared with 278,378 barrels 
exported in June 1935. 

Rye and maslin in the Danube Basin 

The acreage sown to rye and maslin in the Danube Basin for harvest in 
1936 is estimated at 3,793,000 acres, according to a report from the Belgrade 
office of the Foreign Agricultural Service. This compares with 3,919,000 
acres reported for 1935 and the 5-year average, 1930-1934, of 4,107,000 acres. 
While the abandonment this season was probably less than in 1935, it was 
above the average as a, result of frequent hailstorms and late floods. With 
the harvested area placed at 3,620,000 acres, the crop is estimated at about 
67,000,000 bushels as against 61,859,000 bushels produced in 1935, and the 
5-year average of 66,595,000 bushels. The increase this year was the result 



238 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 8 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



of better-than-average ■ outturns in Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia, in 
which countries weather conditions were generally favorable during June 
and July. Excessive rains in northwestern parts of Yugoslavia damaged the 
crop to some extent, but this was offset by good yields obtained in other 
sections. Tne quality of the Danubian crop is generally good. The grains 
were well filled, and warm weather at the time of ripening increased their 
gluten content. 

Commercial carry-over stocks on July 1, 1936, were placed at only 
about 79,000 bushels, practically all of which were in Bulgaria and Hungary, 
being about equally divided between the two countries. The exportable sur- 
plus for 1936-37 is estimated at around 5,000,000 bushels as compared with 
actual exports in 1935-36 of 842,000 bushels and the 5-year average during 
1930-31 to 1934-35 of 5,228,000 bushels. It is considered doubtful, how- 
ever, whether all of the relatively small surplus will be exported. Because 
of the a-ctive foreign demand for wheat and the higher price it commands, the 
domestic consumption of rye probably will be unusually high this season, 
especially a.s there will be little foreign demand for Danubian rye because 
of the large crop in Austria. Exports in July amounted to about 197,000 
bushels, all of which originated in Hungary and went to Austria. Since the 
prices paid for Hungarian rye were above those at which Polish and Lithuanian 
rye could be obtained, Austrian purchases from Hungary were limited in spite 
of the superior quality of the Hungarian grain. Except in Bulgaria, where 
rye is under monopoly control, Danubian rye prices declined throughout July, 
and at the end of the month were at the lowest level reached since July 1935. 
This was attributed to laxk of foreign demand and the large 1936 production. 

Changes in Gorman governmental Measures 

The governmental policy in Germany regarding the grain industry, 
which has been in effect during 1934-35 and 1935-36, will be continued in 
the new marketing season of 1936-37, with a few modifications, according to 
the Berlin office of the Eoreign Agricultural Service. This policy involves 
fixed prices and a strict regulation of the grain trade. The most outstand- 
ing changes have to do with the fixing of a new price series for each of the 
several grains, increases in delivery and milling contingents, the regulation 
of the flour market, the extension of market regulations to include feed 
grains, the fixing of milling extractions, and the reac cumulation of stocks. 

Fixed prices 

The fixed prices of 1935-36 remain, generally, unchanged for the new 
season, except for some regional modifications. The prices for the marketing 
year go into effect at different dates, those for rye and barley coming into 
force on July 16, 1936, and for wheat and oats on August 16, 1936. The new 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, 



CONT'D 



239 



fixed 'prices for wheat, rye, and "barley for the beginning of the 1935-37 
season are 20.00 marks per metric ton below' the old-crop prices at the end 
of the 1935-36 season, and beginning with September this year they increase 
by 2.00, marks each month up to June 1936. They ■will approximate at the be- 
ginning of ' the season $2.05 per bushel for wheat, $1.61 for rye, and $1.32 
per .bushel for barley. In the case of oats, however, the new prices take 
effect at a level of 18.00 marks per metric ton below prices at the end of the 
1935-'36 season, which 'will be about -$0.91 per bushel, and the monthly increase 
of 2.00 marks will not start until October. Slight increases were made in 
, tlie ..£ ixed P? ices 01 " r 7 e and wheat in small districts of Bavaria and in the 
mountains of Saxony, where In past years the grain-farming situation has been 
particularly unsatisfactory. 

Delivery and milling contingents ' ' ■' ' 

The system of contingents for "bread grains delivered by producers 
and of ' milling- contingent c for flour mills has been 1 retained and continues 
to be controlled by so-called "contingent stamps." These must accompany 
the grain from producer to flour mill, and products of the flour mill are 
controlled by seals which they must bear when they leave the flour mill. 
As was the case last year, flour mills are prohibited from purchasing grain 
not accompanied by contingent stamps. 

El our market 

The regulation of the flour market has undergone some changes that 
are directed largely toward a more equitable' treatment of competitors. Flour 
prices remain generally unchanged, except ' in Bavaria, where they have been 
raised in accordance with the higher prices fixed for bread grains. Bread 
prices will not be raised, and in some instances, therefore, the "bakers' 
price spread will undergo some further slight reductions. In general, there 
will be a continuation of the previous system, whereby it was' left to the 
flour mills, the flour trade, and the bakers to cope with the maintenance of 
stable bread prices in the face of grain prices "that were increasing through- 
out the year. Any difficulties arising from this situation will again be 
relieved by equalization funds paid to the bakers. These funds are provided 
for by a fee paid by flour mills on each wheat purchase. 

Feed grains ' -' ' . • " . v ■ 

The changes that have been made in the market regulation of feed 
grains, including feed rye, feed wheat, feed barley, and feed oats, are more 
significant than those made for bread grains. In the first place, grains for 
industrial and feed purposes are to be sharply distinguished. Although the 
utilization of barley and oats for industrial purposes ' (flakes, coffee, 



240 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 8 

CHOP .AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



grits, etc.) was essentially free last year up to March, the new regulations 
prescribe prices and quantities for industrial grains- as well. In an ordi- 
nance of the Central Union of Breweries, the delivery of "brewing "barley and 
malt is also strictly regulated as to quantity, and it is not to "be sold at ': 
more than 20.00 marks per metric ton above the fixed "barley price. Within 
this spread, however, its price is free to move. Purchases of industrial^- 
"barley can he made only against allotted certificates, which are intended 
to prevent the trading in feed grains for alleged industrial utilization at 
prices above the fixed level. 

Peed-grain trading is furthermore placed under strict control. Every 
sale of feed grains made through a merchant or processor is to he reported 
to the designated Regional Grain Association. The trade spread for feed 
grains, which formerly was not strictly regulated, is now also fixed, 
especially since the spreads last year were too high in the free trade of 
feed grains. The spread is to amount to not more than 4.00 marks per metric 
ton for feed rye and feed wheat, or the same as in the case of bread rye and 
bread wheat, and to 4.00 to 10.00 marks per metric ton for feed barley and 
feed oats. " . 

Milling extraction and stocks 

Regulations pertaining to the milling extraction of rye are made with 
a view on the part of the authorities toward re accumulation of stocks of 
bread rye. It is now prescribed that, until cancelled, rye flour may be 
produced only in type 997, which has a very high percentage extraction. For 
the same reason, that is to increase stocks of bread rye in flour mills, it 
is also prescribed that producers must deliver 30 percent of their total an- 
nual bread- rye delivery contingent before October 15. This delivery quota 
exceeds milling requirements during the period and, therefore, will make 
possible a re accumulation of stocks. Such re accumulation is necessary, 
because flour mills are compelled by the new regulations to maintain a mini- 
mum stock of bread grains amounting to a 2-months' milling contingent whereas 
last season the compulsory stocks had to equal only a month 1 s milling con- 
tingent. 

Czechoslo vak Grain Monopoly extended 

The Czechoslovak Grain Monopoly, which was established in -July 1934 
to be in force for 1 year and was then extended for a second year, has now 
been prolonged until June 30, 1940, according to the Berlin off ice of the 
Foreign Agricultural Service. The new monopoly regulations for 1936-37 
differ from those applied in 1935-36 mostly in regard to prices., which are 
expected, to have an important effect. Flour-mill purchase prices are to 
remain unchanged, but the prices paid to farmers are to be -considerably 
reduced, especially in the_ case of wheat,. This reduction, it is believed* 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 

CS» P AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



241 



will aid greatly in restricting acreage, and the funds accruing to the monop- 
oly are to be used, in part, to cover the deficit of the company, for which 
purpose the Government must also contribute by an outright subsidy. 



A special Government ordinance prescribed a reduction in the acreage 
sown to wheat by approximately 494,000 acres, or 20 percent, and regulates 
this restriction by the setting up of certain wheat, as well as general grain, 
areas for each community. No farm is to be permitted to grow more grains in 
general (wheat, rye : barley, and oats), or wheat in particular, than is to 
be allotted on a percentage basis in each community. The percentage is based 
on the area in previous years as well as on the requirements of the community. 
Eor the country as a whole, the wheat acreage is to be brought back to about 
1,853,000 acres. (Eor 1936, the wheat acreage is estimated at 2,340,000 acres.) 
The Grain Monopoly Administration is authorized to deduct 20 percent from the 
basic purchase price for grain purchased from farms not adhering t to the acre- 
age restrictions. As of May 1, 1936, the Monopoly Company will investigate 
the results of the ordinance, and any violation will be punished* 

By another ordinance, the flour mills have been obligated to take over 
specified quantities of wheat and rye from the Monopoly Company between August 1 
and December 31, 1936. The Monopoly Company is at liberty to tender wheat and 
rye both from the crop of 1935 and that 'of 1936, but wheat and rye of the 1936 
crop may not enter the trade before August 1. 

Monopoly stocks of grain have continued to accumulate, but, in view 
of the European grain situation, it is not believed that surplus stocks will 
be difficult to dispose of during 1936-37. 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Grain Monopoly Statistics, July-June 1934-35 and 1935-36 





Purchases 


Deliveries 


Stocks ay 


Commodity 
















1934-35 


1935-36 


1934-35 


1935-36 


1934-35 


1935-36 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




bushels 


bushels 


bushels 


bushels 


bushels 


bushels 




27,006- 


38,691 


14,807 


12,577 


12,199 


26,014 




15,157 


19,684 


9,724 


12,795 


5,433 


6,889 


Barley .... 


19,198 


17,683 


16,764 


16,948 


2,434 


735 




15,019 


11,092 


8,405 


8,061 


6,614 


3,031 


"=5„~1 3 g T3TBT5 — - 


2,008 


1,417 


1,811 


1,181 


197 


235 



a/ At the end of the marketing year. 



242 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 8 



CHOP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CON T'D 



COTTON 

Large,, C hinese, cotton, crop, expected. 

The 1936 Chinese cotton crop is now estimated at 3,400,000 Dales (478 
pounds net weight) as against 2,600,000 hales last year, according to cabled 
information received from Agricultural Commissioner 0. L. Dawson at Shanghai. 
Dry weather experienced in North China is not expected to reduce the crop in 
that region, where the 1936 crop was planted on an acreage considerably larger 
than that of 1935. The crop in the lower Yangstze Valley also will show a ma- 
terial increase over that of 1935. 

Should the Chinese crop this year reach the present estimate of 3,4OO,00C 
bales, China would "be able to export some 300,000 bales during 1936-37, most 
of which would go to Japan. Purchases of Chinese cotton for export to Japan 
will depend upon its price relative to' Indian cotton. At the present time, 
it is estimated that the price of Chinese cotton would have to be reduced some- 
what in order to compete successfully with Indian. Should the price of 
Chinese cotton fail to decline before October, when the new Indian crop appears 
on the market, a greater price reduction thereafter would be necessary in 
view of the fact that the new Indian crop is expected to sell at prices, about 
5 percent below those paid for the old crop. 

Owing to the small volume of stocks now at hand, Japanese' and Chinese 
mills are keenly interested in securing new-crop supplies of Chinese cotton, 
some of which will be available early in September. If the price of native 
cotton declines sufficiently, Chinese mill owners will be in a better position 
than heretofore to compete with mills in Japan for supplying export require- 
ments of certain classes of piece goods. 

Demand for foreign cotton for the forthcoming season is not expected- 
to fall below the present low levels. Considering the requirements for certain 
types of yarn and the light stocks of foreign cotton, imports may equal or 
even exceed those of this season. Total June imports of 15,383 bales, included 
2885 bales of American cotton. Eor the period of October 1935-June 1936, China 
imported a total of -151,331 bales compared with 232,484 bales for a similar 
period a year ago. The volume of American cotton imported during these two 
periods amounted to 48,612 and 115,001 bales, respectively. Cotton imports 
from sources other than the United States also declined, but on the whole 'the 
reduced imports were chiefly at the expense of American cotton. For the first 
time an appreciable volume of Brazilian cotton was purchased. The present 
volume of all foreign cotton afloat is small. 

The price quotations for Chinese cotton in June were lower than in 
the preceding month because of the reduced prices of foreign cotton and the 



August 24, 1936 
CHOP 



Foreign Crops and Markets 
AU3 MARKET .PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



243 



anticipated large offerings of native cotton in the near future. The price 
differences "between American and Chinese, as well. as Indian and Chinese, 
cotton were smaller than in May. The price spread "between American and Indian 
cotton has narrowed to the advantage of the former. Oh. July. 31-, • 1936, stocks 
of foreign cotton in Shanghai were estimated at- 95,000 "bales: as against. 
16S.000 "bales on July 31, 1935. Stocks of American cotton, amounted to, only 
2,000 "bales compared with 38,000 "bales on a similar date- a year ago... , 



CHINA: Price per pound of ^specified grades of cotton at Shanghai, 
August 12, 1936, with comparisons 



Growth 


July 14 


August 12 


American middling (Immediate delivery) .... 


13.49 
11.95 
17.76 
13.40 


11.30 
9.92 
14.43 
11.29 





CHINA: Imports of raw cotton in June 1936, with comparisons 
(in hales of 500 pounds) 



1936 



Oct oh er- June 



\jr± u VI oil 


: May 


June 

■ 


1934-35 


i 1935-36 






: Bales 


: Bales 


"RpIp.r 




American 
Indian . . 
Egyptian 
Others . . 




i 2,810 
34,270 
1,308 

332 


; 2,885 
: 8,173 
; 3,247 
1.078 


115,001 
90,310 
25,274 
1.899 


j 48,612 
i 81,306 
i 19,648 
:• 1.765 


Total . 




38,720 


15,383 


" 232.484 


151.331 


CHINA: 


Preliminary arrivals of raw cotton in July 1936, with comparisons 
(in hales of 500 pounds) 


Growth 


1936 


Octoher-July 


June 


July 


1934-35 


1935-35 






Bales 




. ."Rales 


"Rples 


American 

Indian . . 

Chinese . 

Egyptian 
Others . . 




1,548 

5, 080 

66,581 , 

2,346 : 
3,566 : 


2,505 

2,720 

41,867 

3,298 
1,398 


120,219 

79,112 

654,244 

23,665 
4,497 ' 


43 , 921 
70,381 
1,070,925 
22,178 
13,345 


Total . 




79,121 : 


51,788 


881,737 . 


1,220,750 



244 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol, 33, No. 8 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



CHINA: Cotton deliveries to Shanghai mills in July 1936, with comparisons 

(in hales of 500 pounds) 



\JT± Uyj ull 


1936 


October 


- July 


June 


July 


-i r\rr a ryes 

1934-35 






Bales 


Bales - 


Bales 


Bales 






1,000 
4,000 "' 
- 58,000 
3,000 
3,000 


134, 000 
88,000 

557,000 
23,000 
6,000 


52,000 
69,000 
1,057,000 
23,000 
12,000 






69 , 000 


808,000 


1,213,000 



TOBACCO 



' New Zealand' tohacco for export 

New Zealand flue-cured tobacco, ■ suitable for cigarettes, is seeking 
entry into the British market, according to Vice Consul T7. fl> Orehaugh at 
Wellington. This year's trial shipment is expected to he larger than the 
65,000 pounds sent in 1935. Trade comment on that lot was to the effect that 
it compared favorably with the heet cigarette grades received from any other 
Empire producing region. Shipments made prior to 1935 were not well received. 
Production for 1935-36 is placed at 1,500,000 pounds of cured leaf, of which 
slightly over half was flue-cured. In addition to the expanding domestic pro- 
duction of leaf, the domestic tohacco-products industry has "been Using in- 
creasing quantities of imported leaf, largely American, although the proportion 
of domestic leaf to the total used also has "been increasing in recent years. 
Total imports in 1935 reached nearly 2, 000,000 pounds . 



FRUIT, VEGETABLES, AND NUTS 

European fruit crop prospects less favorable a/ 

The very favorahle early-season European fruit-crop prospects declined 
substantially during July. A general European fruit shortage is not expected, 
hut in certain countries where hetter-than-average crops seemed probahle, in- 
dications now are for only fair to average yields. These developments have 

aj Prom a report of the London office of the Foreign Agricultural Service 
based in part on information furnished by the offices in Paris, Berlin, and 
Belgrade, 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 245 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



improved the 1936-37 expert outlook for American fruit. With the exception 
of Great Britain, most European countries will have to import fruit much 
sooner this season than was anticipated. 

Despite, the probable delay in Britiah demand for American deciduous 
fruit this season as against last year, it is expected that imports from the 
United States will "be fairly well maintained. Less competition can "be ex- 
pected from Canada as to "both quantity and quality. Nova Scotia is not ex- 
pected to repeat the sharp competition experienced from that quarter last 
season. 

With the exception of Prance, no great improvement over last year's con- 
ditions is expected in continental markets, There are as yet no indications 
that other markets for American fruit will develop sufficiently to- offset the 
loss of the German market. The absence of German "buying also is reflected to 
some extent in the movement of American fruit to neighboring countries. The 
German fruit crops now promise to be no larger than average and perhaps smaller, 
with quality low in most regions. Pears appear to be in generally better shape 
than apples. It appears, however, that the supply of German fruit will not 
fill the normal trade requirements and that low quality vail shorten the 
domestic marketing season. 

In Prance, apple and pear prospects are unsatisfactory in most regions 
with respect to both quantity and quality. In Switzerland, also, damage has 
been severe. Around August 1 the apple crop was placed at 37 percent of normal 
against 67 percent at that time last year. Pears stood at 44 percent against 
59 percent in 1935. Bad weather and insects also have reduced the apple 
crops in the important Austrian regions of Styria and Upper Austria. A 
relatively small volume is seen as being available for export. 

Similar reports of deterioration have developed for Switzerland, 
Czechoslovakia, and Poland. The Netherlands expects only a moderate crop of 
apples, while pears promise a poor to below-average yield. In Belgium "the v - 
pear crop is now expected to be very small, with only a medium to fair harvest- 
of apples in most districts. Early August reports indicated the probable de- 
velopment of even less favorable conditions. 

In the Scandinavian region, Denmark anticipates good yields of fruit 
this season, with apple prospects suggesting an exportable surplus. It is 
expected that Germany will take most of any such exports. The pear crop is 
reported to be about average. In Norway, fruit prospects suggest be low* average - 
crops. Imports, however, are likely to be limited prior to January 1, 1937. 
In Sweden, also, the crops have deteriorated materially, with a below-average 
apple crop in prospect, and a pear crop from 50 to 60 percent of average. In ; 
Finland, available reports indicate an apple orop.jF.rojn 70 to 75 percent below 
that of last year. 



246 , Foreign .Crops ' and Markets Vol* 33, No. 8 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



ERUIT, VEGETABLES, AND NUTS 
Canada receives Italian pears and plums 



A shipment of 936 cases of fresh Italian pears and plums was recently 
received in Canada, according to Consul J. I. Touchette at Montreal, This is 
reported to be the first successful Canadian importation of such fruit from 
Italy. The quantity is very small compared with the amount regularly received 
from the United States hut the favorable quality, condition, and price suggest 
the development of larger future shipments from Italy. 



The pears, of the Vfilliams variety, were packed 48 to 72 per box and 
sold for $1.25 wholesale. The plums were Burbanks and wholesaled at $1.00 per 
box of 56. The style of pack was well received by the trade, the Consul re- 
ports. In the fiscal years ended March 31, 1935, and 1936, imports of pears 
from the United States into Canada reached 13,423,000 pounds and 18,012,000 
pounds, respectively. Receipts from the United States accounted for nearly all 
of the imports of pears, with most of the small remainder coming from Australia, 
In plums, the United States supplied all of the Canadian imports for the fiscal 
years 1935 and 1936, the figures being 4,873,000 pounds and 3,773,000 pounds, 
re spectively . 



AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN TEE EIRST SIX MONTHS OE THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT 



During the first 6 months of the operation of the United States- 
Canadian reciprocal trade agreement, the value of the agricultural trade be- 
tween the two countries increased 24 percent over that for the corresponding 
months of the preceding year. The percent of increase was the same for both 
exports of American agricultural products to Canada and imports of Canadian 
agricultural products into the United States. The 24-percent increase in 
United States agricultural exports compares with an increase of only 13 per- 
cent in our exports of no n- agricultural products to Canada. On the import 
side, however, the 24-percent increase was accompanied by an increase of 23 
percent in the imports of non-agricultural products from Canada. 

The distribution of the 24-percent increase, in the case of exports of 
agricultural products, has been fairly even throughout the 6-month period. 
During the first month of the operation of the agreement, there was actually 
a slight decrease; but this was compensated in later months, and a rising 
trend is now evident. On the side of imports of Canadian agricultural prod- 
ucts, the large increases occurred during the first quarter. With the excep- 
tion of a 63-percent rise in June, due partially to the effects of price ad- 
vances caused by the present drought, imports during the second quarter have 
been relatively low. The heavy imports during the first 3 months of the opera- 
tion of the agreement are attributable to shipments that were held up in order 
to benefit from the terms of the agreement. 



August 24, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



24? 



AGRI CULTURAL TRADE IN THE FIRST SIX i.lONTHS 0? THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT , CONT'D 

The principal United States commodities to benefit from reductions in 
Canadian duties under the trade agreement are oranges and grapefruit, fresh 
vegetables, and fresh fruit. Orange and grapefruit exports to Canada during 
the first 6 months of 1936 were valued at $4,241,000 as compared with 
$3,710,000 in the corresponding period of 1935, a rise of 14 percent. Eresh 
vegetable exports increased in value from $2,285,000 during the first 6 months 
of 1935 to $2,886,000 in the corresponding period this year. Notable increases 
also took place in exports of pork, lard, eggs, corn and cornmeal, dried fruit, 
canned fruit, nuts, fruit juices, and seeds. 

The principal item of increase on the import side has been cattle and 
ca.lves coming under a quota restricting total imports from all countries to 
1 percent of United States estimated total average slaughter in the years 1928- 
1932. By August 1, the reduced-duty quota of cattle weighing 700 pounds or 
more for 1936 was 89.3 percent utilized, while the' quota on calves weighing 
less than 175 pounds was 98 percent filled. The quotas represent imports from 
both Canada and Mexico. Increases also took place in imports from Canada dur- 
ing the first 6 months of this year of live poultry, cheese, turnips, seed 
potatoes, and maple sugar. Important decreases occurred in imports from Canada 
of hay, oa„ts, and grass and forage seeds. 



UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada of agricultural commodities 
on which duties were reduced, Jan. -June, 1935 and 1936 



Commodity 










January 


- June 




j Unit 




Quantity 


Value 








1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 














1,000 


1,000 


Animals - 












dollars 


dollars 




i Head 






77 


176 


32 


49 




: Thousand 


lb 




7 


21 


4 


11 














194 


221 


Total animals 










230 


281 


Meats - 


















j Thousand 


lb 


• 


333 


1,022 


35 


126 


^ - Pork, cured ej 


; Thousand 


lb 


• 


109 


344 


25 


62 




j Thousand 


lb 


0 


4 


92 


.1 


32 




; Thousand 


lb 


♦ 


302 


23 


40 


3 




; Thousand 


lb 


• 


158 


250 


34 


37 




' f Thousand 


lb 


• 


906 


1,731 


135 


260 


Other animal products - 


i 














Lard (including neutral lard) 


: Thousand 


Lb. 




517 


947 


64 


109 




; Thousand 


Lb. 




525 


445 


146 


65 




; Thousand < 


3.0 z 


t 


15 


99 


10 


33 














5 


19 












225 


226 



Continued 



248 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 8 

AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS Of THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT , CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada of agricultural commodities 
on which duties were reduced, Jan. -June, 1835 and 1936, cont'd 



e 



January - June 



Cornmodi ty 



Unit 



Quantity 



Value 



1935 . 1936 



1935 1936 







1,000 
dollars 


1,000 
5 dollars 


:b/ 78 

'. a a-\ q 

, U , U_L J 

; 635 
j 3,415 


b/ 298 

cj 34 
709 
3,566 


140 

<CG\J 

14 

66 
78 
90 


267 

50 
701 
64 
236 






618 


786 






2,285 
47 
62 
72 


2,886 
58 
61 
79 






2,4§6 


3,084 


j 1,583 

•a/1,402 

i 1,723 

: 1,104 


1,805 
d/5,440 

2,186 
1,869 


3,710 

58 
717 
130 

99 


4,241 
123 
839 
176 
159 



Grains end grain products - : 

Corn and cornmeal 'Thousand bu. 

Rice, cleaned ; Thousand lb. 

Wheat and wheat flour [Thousand bu. 

Biscuits, unsweetened [Thousand lb. 

Hominy and corn grits iThousand lb. 

Others : 

Total grains and grain , : 

products j 

Vegetables end preparations - j 

' "Fresh vegetables ,[ 

Canned vegetables ; 

Dried vegetables i 

Vegetable preparations 

Total vegetables and j 

preparations ; 

Fruits and preparations - j 

Oranges and grapefruit .j Thousand bx 

Apples and pears .1 Thousand lb. 



7 



Other fresh fruit 



Dried and evaporated fruit ....j Thousand lb. 

Canned end preserved fruit }■ Thousand lb. 

Total fruit and preparations j 

..Nuts • Thousand lb._ 

*fiolasses J Thousand galj 

Sirup, including maple ^'Thousand gali 

Malt extract end sirup j Thousand lb." 

Fruit juices ; Thousand gal! 

Field end garden seeds | Thousand lb. 

Nursery end greenhouse stock I 

Miscellaneous items ' 



228 
181 
17 
44 
120 
1,022 



Total 



4,714 



"~SlT 

169 
18 

86 
265 
2,827 



83 
32 
4 
3 
72 
178 
119 
12 



5,538 



156 
30 
7 
5 

180 
244 
174 
10 



8,691 



10,981 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
aj Includes haras and shoulders, bacon, and Cumberland and Wiltshire sides, 
b/ CornrneeJ converted at the rate of 4 bushels of corn to 1 barrel of meal. 
cj Wheat flour converted at the rate of 4.7 bushels of vsheat to 1 barrel of 
flour, 

d/ Apples converted at the following rates* 48 pounds to 1 bushel basket; 
44 pounds to 1 box; 140 pounds to 1 barrel. 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 249 

AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN THE FIRST SIX MOUTHS OE THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT, CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Imports from Canada of agricultural commodities 
on which duties were reduced, January-June , 1935 and 1936 









; January - June 


Commo di ty 


; Unit 




; , Quantity 


Value 




•; ' 




' ■ 'X VOTJ 


.- 19-36' 


! 1935 


: 1936 




, 








* JL | WWW 


, X , www 


Cattle - 


! ' 1 






: . . - • 


Idollars 


:dollars 


YIp i P"Vi i n v lone fVifin *70n 1 \\ ft 7 


. • i J.IIU U-bcJ-ilU. 


1,1c t^-O. 


;. -22- 


-44' 


: 816 


; 776 






.he ad 


; .50 


: -114- 


; 3,109 


5,978 






head 


! ?2 


: 158 


; 3,925 


; 6,754 


Poultry - 


j 
















lb. 


j . . . 4 . 


\ . 339 


: 2 


: 55 






lb. . 


: . . 49. 


■ . . 89 


: 10 


: 21 






'lb. 


: . . -53. . 


:. . 428 


12 


76 


Horses worth not over $150 each... 


. . : Thousand. 


head . 


: . . . 3. 


: 13 


363 


1,523 


Dai w Tirndiirt 1 ? — 


















lb.. . 


.412 


: 3,826 • 


! 51 


' 493 










6 0^5 


b/ 


Q 












51 


501 


Cereal "brf 3 alcfa^t, fnnrl^ 


lb. . 


'186 


' 392 


20 


.34 


IT nlr 




■tons ■ 


' 52 ' 


" 4 


522 


25 






•bu. ' ' 




* ' An 






Vegetables - 
















. Million- lb-.- ' 


'41' 


' 59 


236 


365 




• Million- lb; 


3 


23 


on 

27 


322 




..! Million- lbi ' 


c/ 


0 


3 


0 




. .: Million lb. ' ' 


44 


82 


266 


687 


Eruits - 


















lb; ' 


' "900 ' ' 


' '449 


41 


23 


4- /™\ -vt 




•lb. ' ■ 




' ' 119 


b/ 


10 






lb. • ' 


• • 900 ': 


' 568 i 


41 


33 


Grass and other forage seeds - 












i/ 






lb. • 


l',974 : 


i ; 

" ' 89 


357 1 
11 




lb . ■ • '; 


• ' '89 : 


6 






lb* : 


46 : 


740 : 


9 


37 






lb. : 


2,109 i 


830 : 


377 


43 






lb* • : 


1,016 ' | 


2,941 : 


154 j 


477 


Total 










6,036 ; 




« 
i 








10,167 



Compiled from off icial records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

a/ The cattle weighing less than 175 lb. per head' were' affected by the United 

States-Canadian Trade Agreement. Howe ve r , ■ thi s item was not separately classi 

fied in United States import statistics prior to 1936.. 

b/ Less than 500. 

c/ Less than 500,000. 



250 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 8 

AGILE CULTURAL TBADE IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF THE CANADIAN AGEEEMENE, CONT'D 
UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada, by months, January-June , . 1935 and 1$36. 



Item and month. 



j 1935 


i 1936 


; Increase 


or decrease 


; Amount . 


Percentage 


: Thousand 


\ Thousand 


thousand 




: dollars 


! dollars 


: dollars 


; Percent 




: 25,728 


: 44,104 


: +19 


21,858 


• 23,887 


: +1,929 


! +9 


.• 24,210 


; 26,310 


■ +2,100 


i i O 

i * ° 


27,478 


; 30 , 230 


: +2,752 


\ +10 


39,065. 


• 44,086 


• +5,021 


: +13 


.: 26.532 


: 33,511 . 


; +6,979 


! +26 


.1 160,867 


: 183,752 


i +22,885 


+14 


.: 17,603 


j 21,999 


+4,396 . 


+25 


.1 19,135 


j 20,413 


+1,293 


: '+7 


, : 21,015 


j 22,001 


+986 


: +5 


, : 23,809 


26,305 


+2,494 


: +10 


.: 35,418 


• . 39,286. 


+3,868 


: +ii 


.: .23.352 


28 p 337 


+4 ? 985 


+21 


140,322 


158,344 


+18,022 


+13 


.j 4,021 


3,729 


-292 


-7 


2,833 


3,469 


+636 


• ■ +22 


,: 3,195 


4,309 


+1,114 


+35 


3,669 


3,927 


+258 


++7 


.: '3,647 


' " 4, 800 


+1,153 


+32 


.: 3,180 


5,174 


+1,994 


+63 


, : 20,545 


' '25,408 


+4,863 


+24 


j 

\ 959 


1,325 


+366 


+38 


. : 1,161 


1,241 , 


' ' +80 


4+7 


1,431 


1,886 ; 


+455 


+32 


: 1,659 


2,201 | 


+542 , 


+33 


j 2,066 


i;853 ■ : 


-213 ■ 


-10 


1,615 


' ■ 2,475 . 


+860 


+53 


,: 8,891, 


io,98i : 


. *-) ■ r\r\ r\ 1 

+2,0yU ; 


i OA 


.; '3,062 


' "2,404 1 


' -658 : 


-21 


1,672 


2,228 ; 


■ +556:.: 


+33 


1,764, 


2,423 ; 


+659 • 


+37 


.: 2,010] 


1,726 j 


-284 j 


-14 


,: 1,581- 


2,947 : 


+1,366 : 


+86 


.: 1,565: 


2,699 j 


+1,134 : 


+72 


.: 11,654: 


14,427 ' 


+2,773 : 


+24 



All commodities - 

J anuary 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Eirst 6 months 

Non-agricultural' - 

January , 

February 

March 

April 

May , 

June 

Eirst 6 months 

Agricultural - 

J anuary , 

February , 

March , 

April 

May , 

June , 

First 6 months , 

Agricultural on which duties were 
reduced under the agreement - 

January , 

February . .' ., 

March 

April 

May 

June 

First 6 months 
Other agricultural - 

January , , 

. February , 

March , 

April 

May , 

June , 



First 6 months 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic. Commerce. 



August 24, 1936- Foreign Crops and Markets 251 

AGRICULTURAL TRADE IS THE FIRST SIX MOUTHS OP THE CANADIAN AGREEMENT 
UNITED STATES 



Imports from 
1935 



Canada, "by months, January-June , 
and 1936 



Item and month 



X sou 




Amount 


.Percentage 


Thous and 


; Thousand 


: Thousand 




dollars. 


: dollars 


: dollars 


'• . . Percent 


19,235 


j 24,276 


: +5,041 


;. +26 


18,142 


j 22,928 


: +4,786 


;. + 26 


20,877 


j 26,835 


' +5,958 


i + 29 


22,353 


26,710 


; +4,357 


; . . + 19 


26,974 


28,744 


: +1,770 


: + ? 


22,313 


30,347 


• +8 , 034 


' + 36 


129,894 


159.840 


: +29,946 


+ .23 


15,379 


19,074 


\ + S,695 


: + 24 


14,153 


17,535 


1 + 3,382 


! + 24 


16,253 


20,507 


'; + 4,254 


: + 26 


16,288 


20 f 177 


j + 3,889 


i + 24 


20,700 


22, 923 


; + 2,223 


+ 11 


1 Q one 
lb] <d20 


cto , b AJ 




' a. 

, + ou 


100,998 


123,886 


+22,888 


■ + 23 


3, 856 


5, 202 


+ 1,346' 


9 -K55 


3 , 989 


rr tot 

5 , 393 


+ 1,404 ■ 


i- - • • TOD 


4,624 


6 , 328 


+ 1,704 - 


.• • +37 


6 , 065 


6 , 533 


+ 468 • 


i +8 


6 , 274 


5, 821 


-453 


'— ■ _y 


-,Uoo 


D , b It 




+A^ 

• DO 


28,896 


35, 954 


* 7,058 


+ 24 


474 ' 


952 


+ 478 


+ 101 


680 , 


1,067 ■ 


+ 387 


+ 57 


1 , 200 1 


1 , 746 


+ 546 


+ 46 


1,491 • 


2,724 ' 


+1 , 233 


+ 83 


1,521 ; 


1 , 9o>3 


+ 412 


+ 27 


O (VI ' 


1 VAX '< 


+i n^R 


+ i fin 


6,036 


10,167 ; 


+ 4,131 


+ 68 


3,382 \ 


4,250 : 


+ 868 


+26 


3,309 • 


4,326 : 


+1,017 ; 


+31 


3,424 : 


4,582 : 


+ 1,158 . j 


+34 


4,574 i 


3,809 | 


-765 , : 


-17 


4,753 


3,888 j 


-865 . : 


-18 


3,418 ■ 


4,932 ! 


+ 1,514 : 


+ 44 


22.860 : 


25.787 ! 


+ 2.927 


+ 13 



All commodities - 

J anuary .......... 

February . 

March. ............. , 

Apri 1 ...... . , 

May 

June . . , 

First 6 months..., 

Non- agricultural - 

January .»..........,,,.. 

February. 

March. ' t 

April. .............. 

May. , , / 

June . , . . . . . 

First 6 months. 

Agricultural a/ 

January. 

February 

March 

April. 

May 

June 

First 6 months 

Agricultural on which duties were 
reduced under the agreement - 

January 

February 

March V. . ' , 

April.' , 

May ( 

June , , 

First 6 months , 

Other agricultural - 

January, , , 

February . ........... . , ........ 

March. 

April 

,May 

June m ( 

First 6 months . , 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
a/ Does not include distilled spirits. 



252 Foreign Crops end Markets Vol. 33, No.' 8 

WHEAT; Closing Saturday prices' of December futures 









Kansas 


City 














, Buenos 


Tin 4- 


Chicago 


Minneapolis 


Winnipeg a/ 


Liverpool aj 


Aires b/ 




1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 - 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936; 


High c/>>»>; 


Cents 


.... 

Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


96 


114 


' 96 


114 


105" 


126 


d/ 85' 


106 


81 


115 


ej 66 


g/117 


Low c/ 


82 


86 


78 


81 


102 


88 


d/ 80 


76 


70 


82 


ej 56 




July 25.... 


94 


104 


94 


102 


100 


117 


.a/ ,85 


92 


77 


L 101 


fj 65 


f/100 


Aug. 1 .... 


92 


114 


91 


113 


100 


126 


a/ 84, 


.102 


...,78 


111 


f/ 64 


f/109 


8 .... 


92 


112 


92 


112 


105 


126 


2/ .84 


103 


78 


112 


fj 63 


f/107 


15 .... 


88 


111 


90 


113 


102 


124 


83 


99 


78 


. .UQ 


fj 63 


1/110 



a/ Conversions at noon buying rate of exchange, b/ Prices are of aay previous to 
other prices, c/ June 1 to date, d/ August futures, e/ August and October futures 
f/ October futures. g_/ September and October futures. 



WHEAT: Weekly weighted average cash price at stated markets 





All classes 


No. 2 . 


No. 1 


No. '2 


Hard ' 


' ' 'No. 


2 


Western 


Week 


and grades 


Hard Winter 


Dk.N.' Spring 


Amber 


Durum 


Red Winter 


White 


ended 


six markets 


Kansas City 


Minneapolis 


Minneapolis 


1 'St. Louis 


'Seattle a/ 




1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


' '193d 


1935 


' 1936 


1935 


1936 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


'Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


High b/ .... 


■ 101 


128 


106 


122 


128 


150 


120 


156 


94 


118 


78 


97 


Low b/ 


93 


90 


85 


89 


102 


118" 


100 


' 104 


' ' 85 


'95 


73 


78 


July 25 ... 


.96 


110 


99 


111 


111 


134 


104 


142 


8'8 


107 


76 


91 


Aug. 1 .... 


100 


117 


106 


117 


125 


140, 


120 


152 


' 94 


112 


76 


94 


8 .... 


98 


127 


104 


122 


128 


150 


117 


166 


93 


116 


76 


97 


15 .... 


96 


128 


102 


122 


123 


144 


118 


148 


91 


118 


75 





a/ Weekly average of daily cash quotations, basis No. 1 sacked, b/ June 1 to date. 



WHEAT: Price per bushel at specified European markets, 1934-35 and 1935-36 



Date 



Eange 



Rotterdam 



Hard 
W inter 
No. 2 



Manitoba 
No. 3 



Argentina 

d 



Australia 

. ,b/ . . . , 



Berlin 

■0] ■ 



Paris 



Milan 



Domes Die 



England 
and 
Yifales 



1935- 36 d/ 

1936- 37 a/ 



July 9.. 
16 . 
23 , 
30 , 

Aug. 5 . 



High. . 
Low . . 
High. . 
Low, , . 



Cents 
84 
74 
104 
101 
ej 101 
e/ 102 
e/ 104 



Cents 
90 
82 
.102 
99 
.99 
101 
102 



C^nts 
77 
64 

106 
99 
99 
99 

106 



• Cents 
• 78 

■ • 71 
105 
■ 100 

. . 100 
. 103 

. ■ 105 



Cents 



229 
228 
233 
• -232 • 
. 233 . 

.233 . 
. 232 



Cents 



•139 
121 
204 
•177 
179 
.182 
187 

.201 
204 



'Cents 



223 
206 



Division of Statistical ana Hi 
Prices at Paris ana Milan are 
ana Wales are for week enaing 
a/ Barusso. b/ P.A.Q,. c/ Proau 
aate. e/ Nominal. 



storical Research, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
of aay previous to other prices, prices in Englana~ 
Saturday. Conversions maae at current exchange rates, 
cer's fixea price from August 16, 1934, d/ July 1 to 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 253 



PEED GRAINS AND EYE: Weekly average price per bushel of corn, rye, 
oats, and "barley at leading markets a/ 









Horn 






Eye 


Oats 


Barley 


Week 




Chicago 




Buenos Aires-Minneacolis : 


Chicago 


Minneapolis 


ended 


No. 


3 










— — 




No. 


3 : 


No. 




• Yellow 


Futures 


Futures 






White 


2 




1935 


1936 


1935 


■1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


laob 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


High b/. . .' 


96 


111 


77 


106 


38 


54 


80 


83 


58 


44 


113 


125 


Low 1_7. . . . 


80 


59 


74 


58 


37 


43 


42 


48 


28 


25 


41 


58 








Sept . 


Sept . 


Oct. 


Oct. 












92 


July 18 . . . 


85 


89 


76 


85 


38 


46 


43 


75 


34 


37 


48 


25. . . 


85 


91 


76 


88 


38 


47 


47 


74 


: 35 


37 


50 


80 


Aug . 1 . . , 
8. . . 


84 


99 


77 


97 


38 


49 


49 


79 


i 36 


39 


41 


92 


84 


111 


76 


106 


38 


54 


46 


83 


: 32 


44 


50 


107 


15. . . 


85 


110 


76 


106 


37 


53 


44 


80 


: 28 


44 


52 


125 



a/ Cash prices are weighted averages of reported sales; future prices are simple 
averages of daily quotations, b/ For period January 1 to latest date shown. 



FEED GRAINS : Movement from principal exporting countries 



Exports . Shipments 1936, Exports as far 

Commodity . for year j week ended a/ '■ as reported 

and ; 

country ;i934-35! 1935-36 j Aug.l : Aug. 8 ;Aug.l5 1 : 1935-36; 1936-37 

. • ; . • i to ; D/ pj 



: 1,000 i 1,000 i l.ooo ; 1,000 j 1,000 : ■ 1,000 ; 1,000 

BARLEY, EXPORTS: c / ; bushel s \ bushel s '■ bushel s : "bushel s j bushel s • ' j bushels : bushels 

United States i 4,05o| 9,886: 72: ~ l73j 315:Aug. 15: l,22lj 859 

Canada ; 14,453: 6,882: : :. : July 31: 1,098: 1,892 

Argentina : 20,739: 9,468: 150: 179: ;Aug. 8: 646: 717 

Danube & U.S.S.R. j 11.250! 37,375! 33i 35 j 100!Aug. 15] 5,454! 1,138 
Total - ? ; 50.492: 63.611 : j j ; j 8.419: 4,606 

OATS, EXPORTS: c/ \ : : : i I : i 

United States | 1,147: 1,429: 0; 1; 0;Aug. 15; 111; 8 

Canada ,..: 17,407: 14,892: \ i ;July3li 1,442] 1,485 

Argentina i 4-3,753: 9,790; 248: 220: 83 ; Aug. 15: 2,396: 1,020 

Danube & U.S.S.R. •' 8.444: 2.847: Oj 0; 0 :Aug. 15: 0: 130 

Total i 70.751: 28.958: • : ; j 3,949! 2,643 

CORN, EXPORTS: d/ 1 1933-34 : 1934-35 ; ; ; Nov.ltQ; 1934-35 - 1935-36 

United States • 4,832: 880; 0; 50: 0:Aug. 15: 671: 757 

Danube & TJ.S-S.R. : 23,134: 15,857: 392: 527: 621: Aug. 15; 15,577: 12,683 

Argentina ..'.228,864:256,143; 5,432: 6,307 : 6, 619;Aug. 15:190,983:208,831 

South Africa : 8.583; 21.882: 9: -238: OjAug. 15: 15.351: 7.047 

Total ' 265.413:394. 763: j j j : 223 .082 1 229. 318 

United States ; : j j i 

imports j 1,362:41,141; \ \ i June 30; 19,262; 9,405 



Compiled from official and trade sources, aj The weeks shown in these columns are 
nearest to the date shown, b/ Preliminary, c/ Year beginning July 1. d/ Year 
beginning November 1. 



254 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 8 



COTTON: Price per pound of representative raw cotton at Liverpool, 
Au.gu.st 14, 1936 with, comparisons 



1936 



jjc sox xpT/Xun 


Jtsfie 






.Til 1 v 






August 


26 




10 


17 


24 


31 


7 


14 




(lent «; 

v \^ X X. v O 


Rent c: 


(Ipn t q 




f!pn t =! 


dent s 

\J Oil \J Q 


(lent ^ ' 


dent <5 


Amevic an — 


















Mi r^rll inp* 

ill J. H-vJ L J-X*^ ••■•*•**•* ••■* •■•••• 


15.01 


1 5-03 


15 86 


15 65 


15.3? 


14. 83 


14.69: 


14.49 




1 ^ 76 


13,77 


14.60 


14.39 


14.06 


13.58 


13.43 


13.24 


Esvotian (Fullv £rood fair*) .... 






l Q o34 


20.26 


21.22 


21.87 


22.86 


23.46 




O'X Pi A 
<dO . UD 


Uppers . 


ID. OO 




T D CO 

X ( » b<d 


X ( . ce* 


in -I /~v 

lo . 1U 


±o • c U 


17.49 


17.05 


Brazilian (Pair) - 




















13.76 


13.67 


14.29 


13.97 


13.75 


13.48 


13.12 


13.03 


Sao Paulo 


14.38 


14.29 


14.92 


14.60 


14.27 


14.00 


13.64 


13.55 


East Indian - 


















Broach (Folly good) 


11.81 


11.97 


12. 64 


11.96 


11.85 


11.64 


11.48 


11.35 


C. P. Oomra No. 1, superfine. 


11.96 


12.35 


12.87 


12.51 


12.33 


12.12 


11.97 


11.83 


Sind (Fully good) 


10.20 


10.17 


10.69 


10.33 


10.15 


10.11 


10.06 


; 9.93 


Peruvian (good) 


















Tanguis 


17.31 


17.22 


17.85 


17.74 


17.51 


17.13 


16.99 





Compiled "by Foreign Agricultural 
rate . 



Service Division. Converted at current exchange 



LITHUANIA: Acreage of specified crops, 1931-1936 



Year 


Wheat 


Eye 


Barley 


Oats 


potatoes 


Flaxseed 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




acres 


acres 


acres 


acres 


acres 


acres 


1931 


478 


1,257 


486 


910 


416 


139 


1932 


509 


1,194 


497 


922 


428 


106 


1933 


499 


1,210 


512 


848 


441 


135 


1934 


514 


1,225 


503 


812 


452 


150 


1935 


536 


1,267 


508 


841 


436 


194 


1936 


485 


1,216 


529 


883 


442 


208 



International Institute of Agriculture, Rome, 



August 24, 1936 Foreign Crops arid Markets 255 



BUTTEH: New Zealand grading, 1935-36 


season to August 7, 


with comparisons 






Date 


i 1933-34 


1934-35 




1935-36 




: l t 000 pounds 


: 1, 000 pounds 


: 1,000 pounds 




: 269.293 


250,671 


: 275,060 


Week ended 








April 3 


6,216 


j 5,712 


; 6,440 


:£a 10 . ... iJ-.i.:-*.. .■ 


4,928 


: 5,768 


• 5 , 600 


17 


: 4,480 


: 4,558 


j 5,656 


24 


3,472 


■ 4,760 


; 4 , 704 


April total 


19,096 


: ' 20,798 


■ 22,400 


May 1 


3,304 


j 4,480 


; 4,704 


8 


2, 632 


I 3,696 


\ 3,864 


15 


2,240 


; 2,856 


I 2,968 


22 


1,680 


i 2,576 


I 2,296 


29 


1.512 


: 2,016 


• 1,960 


May total 


11.368 


15,624 


15,792 


June 5 


1,064 


: 1,512 


1,456 


12 


896 


! 1,176 


: 1,120 


19 


560 


896 


: 1,008 


26 


560 


728 


224 


June total 


3.080 


4,312 


3,808 


July 3 


616 


806 


560 


10 


672 


728 


616 


17 . 


868 


1,036 


616 


24 i 


1,058 


1,064 


1,064 


31 : 


1.680 ' 


1,926 


1,361 


July total ; 


4,894 : 


5.560 


4, 217 


Total 1935-36 j 


307.731 : 


296,965 


321,277 


August 7 ; 


2.212 : 


2,419 


2,016 


Agricultural Attache 6. C. Taylor, London. 






BUTTER: Price per pound in New York, 




San Francisco, CoToenhaeen. and London. Aucnist 20. 1936. with comparisons 




1936 


1935 


Market and description ; 








August 13 


August- 20 


August 22 




Cent s ; 


Cent s ; 


Cents 




36.5 | 


' 35.5 ■ 


25.2 


San Francisco, 92 score : 


37,5 


37.o : 


27.5 




22.9 \ 


23.1 


18.6 


London: ; 










28.6 


28.7 ; 


24.0 




26.6 : 


27.3 i 


21.0 




24.9 i 


25.2 


' 18.8 




sJ i 


sJ 


19.7 




24.8 ■ 


25.4 


19.2 


Siberian : 


24.8 ; 


25.3 


19.2 



Foreign prices converted at current rates of exchange, a/ Ho quotation. 



256 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No, 8 



GRAINS: Exports from the United States, July 1 - Aug. 15, 1935 and 1936 
PORK: Exports from the United States, Jan. 1 - Aug. 15, 1935 and 1936 



Commodi ty 



; July 1 - Aug. 15 



Week ended 



• 1935 


1936 


■ July 25 


Aug. 1 


Aug. 8 


Aug. 15 


: 1,000 

: "bushels 


1,000 
"bushe 1 s 


; 1 , 000 
: "bushels 


1,000 
"bushels 


1 , 000 . 
"bushe 1 s 


1,000 
"bushels 


■ 68 


50 


: 0 


40 


0 


5 


; 1,415 


757 


: 103 


103 


197 


38 


: 1,221 


859 


i . 133 


72 


173 


315 


! 7 


152 


: 5 


0 


50 


0 


i in 


8 


I o 


0 


1 


0 


i 2 


0 


: o 


0 


0 


0 


: Jan. 1 - 


Aug. 15 











GRAINS: 

Wheat a/ 

Wheat flour b/ 

Barley a/ 

Corn 

Oats. 

Eye 



PORK: 

. Hams and shoulders 

ifeeon, including sides. 

Pickled pork 

Lard, excluding; neutral 



1,000 . ; 
pounds j 
39, 183| 
5,019 ; 
6,188 : 
76.281 ' 



1,000 
pounds 
28,057 
4,150 
5,638 
70.938 



1,000 
pounds 
1,331 
554 
107 
1.539 



1,000 
pounds 
705 
254 
250 
2.414 



1,000 
pounds 
837 
249 
161 
858 



1,000 
pounds 
619 
234 
115 
368 



Division of Statistical and Historical Research. Official records, Bureau of 
Poreign and Domestic Commerce, a/ Included this week: Pacific ports, wheat, 
4,000 bushels; flour 1,700 barrels, from San prancisco, barley 315,000 bushels; 
rice 4,174,000 pounds, b/ Includes flour milled in bond from Canadian wheat, in 
terms of wheat. 



WHEAT, INCLUDING FLOUR: Shipments from principal exporting countries 
as given by current trade sources, 1933-34 to 1935-56 



Total 



Shipments 1936 



Country 


shiiments : week ended 


July 1 - Aug. 15 


1933-34 1934-35 . 


Aue.l :Aue.8 


Au£. 15 


1935-36. 1936-37 




1,000 . 
bushels 


1,000 
bushe 1 s 


1,000 
bushels 


1,000 
! bushels 


1,000 
bushels 


1 , 000 : 1 , 000 
bushels; bushels 


220,616 
194,213 
37,002 


168,712 
176,059 
21 , 532 


5,688 
5,070 
143 


5,794 
197 


4,569 
5,737 

.43 


12,656; 36,739 
51,899] 30,802 
1,483 


Danube and Bulgaria d/ . . . . 


140,128 
90,736 
26,656 
15,872 

c/2,084 


186,228 
111,628 
1,656 
4,104 
c/2.318 


1,452 
1,212 

0 

736 
104 


584 
955 

0 

640 
u_ o 


1,063 
1,892 

0 

712 

0 


15,70q 7,063 
10,160; 7,011 
643 

60S 3,360 
6 200 




496,092 


474,646 








39,772 54,373 


Total European ship- 


401,560 


387,752 


6,616 




if :f/ 

f 23,520^ 26,808 


Total ex-European ship- 


.123,352 


142,424 


3.288 




tl if/ 

•' 11,792 14,696 



Shipments 



Division of Statistical and Histori 
sources, a/ Broomhall's Corn Trade 
Prince Rupert, and New Westminster, 
e/ Total of trade figures includes 
August 1. 



cal Research. Compiled from official and trade 
News, b/ Port William, Port Arthur, Vancouver, 
c/ Official, d/ Black Sea shipments only. 
North America as reported by Broomhall. f/ To 



August 24, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



257 



EXCHANGE RATES: Average weekly and monthly values in New York of 
specified currencies, August 15, 1936, with, comparisons aj 





Monetary 






Montn 






Week 


ended 


Country 


1934 


1935 


1936 




; 1935 


: unit 


Julv 


JtjlLy 




•Tn ti P 

fj- UXIv 


Julv 


. Aug. 

1 


: Aug. 
: 8 


; Aug. 
: 15 




1 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


: cents 


: cents 


Argentina. 


; 

: Paper peso 


33.61 


33.03' 


33.11 


33.42 


33.49 


33.46 


;' 33.46 


; 33.49 


Canada. . « . 


; Dollar. . . . 


101.20 


99 . 83 


, '.99.81 


99.72 


99.72 


99.97 


; 99.98 


; 99.98 




; Shang.yuan 


33.91 


38.68 


, .29.69 


29.-89 


29.97 


30.00 


; 30.02 


J 30.06 


Denmark. . . 


: Krone ..... 


22.51 


22.13 


, '22 .18 


22.41 


22.42 


22.40 


22.40 


J 22.40 


England. . . 




504.07 


495 . 77 


496.97 


501.92 


502.25 


501.71 


501.95 


\ 502 . 51 




■ Franc ..... 


6.59 


6.62 


; *6.59 


6.59 


•6.62 


6.60 


6.59 


: 6.59 


Germany. . . 


'. Reichsmark 


38.49 


40.35 


40.28 


40.27 


40.32 


40.26 


40.21 


40.23 


Italy 


: Lira 


8.58 


8.23 


7.86 


7.86 


■ 7.88 


7.89 


7.87 


7.86 






29.84 


29.15 


?9 OR 




29.33 


29 .30 


29.35 


29 .39 


Mexico . . • . 


: Peso 


27.75 


27.77 


27.76 


27.76- 


27.76 


27.76 


27.76 


27.75 


Netherlands Guilder. . • 


67.71 


67.99 


67.63 


67.69 


SC. 08 


67.96 


67.90 


67.91 


Norway. . , . 


: Krone 


25.32 


24.91 


24.97 




•25.23 


25.21 • 


25.22; 


25.25 




■ peseta. . . . 


13.67 


13.73 


13.65 


13.66 


13.71 


13.67| 


13.62; 


13.65 


Sweden. . . . 


• Krona. .... 


25.99 


25.56 


25.62. 


25.88 


25.89 


• 25.87: 


25.88; 


25.91 




32.58 


32.75 


32.39 


32.43 


32.72 


32.67: 


32.61 


32.60 



Federal Reserve Board.' a/ Noon "buying rates for cable transfers. 



LIVESTOCK AND MEAT: Price per 100 pounds in specified European markets, 
August 12, 1936, with comparisons a/ 





tTeek ended 


Market and item 


August 14* ■ 


; August 5, 


August 12, 




1935 


1 1936 


j 1936 




Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Germany: 










18.90 


: 17.70 ' 


17.70 


Price of lard, tcs .,- Hamburg. .. . 


18.90 


: 13.14 


13.02 


United Kingdom: b/ 








Prices at Liverpool 1st quality. 










Nominal 


16.69 


16.90 




20.21 


21.68 


■ 22.43 




17.54 


19.60 


20.53 


American short cut green hams. • 


23.54 " 


20.88 


20.86 




17.26 : 


13.09 ; 


13.11 



Liverpool quotations are on the "basis of sales from importer to wholesaler. 
bJ Converted at current rate of exchange. ~bj Week ended Friday. 



258 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, Ho, 8 



Index 



Page 



Late cables 234 

Crop and i.arket Prospects 235 

AGRICULTURAL TRADE, UNITED STATES- 
CANADA, JAIUARY-JUNE 1936 .... 246 

Parley: 

Area, Lithuania, 1931-1936 254 

Prices, Germany, Sept. 1, 1936 ... 239 
Butter : 

Grading s, New Zealand, Aug . 7 , 1935 255 
Prices, specified markets, 

Aug. 20~ 1936 255 

Cotton: 

Area, India, 1935,1936 ' 234 

Deliveries, Shanghai. , October- July 

1935, 1936 . . '244 

Imports, China, October- June, 

1935,1936 . . , ' '243 

prices: 

China, Aug. 12, 1936 '243 

United Kingdom, Aug. 14, 1936 .. 254 
Production, China, 1935,1936 242 

Exchange rates, foreign, Aug. 15, 1936 257 

Flaxseed: 

Area, Lithuania, 1931-1936 254 

Production, Netherlands, 1935,1935 234 
Fruit, crop prospects, Europe, 

July 1936 244 

Grains: 

Exports, United States, 

Aug. 15, 1936 256 

Gov ernraent al measur e s : 

Czechoslovakia, 1936-37 240 

Germany, 1936-37 238 

Movement (feed), principal 

countries, Aug. 15, 1936 253 

Prices (feed), principal markets, 

Aug. 15, 1936 > 253 

Meat (pork): 

Exports, United States, 

Aug. 15, 1936 256 

Import quota (bacon) U.K., 

Sept. - Dec. 1936 234 

Prices, foreign markets, 

Aug. 12, 1936 257 



Page 

Oats; 

Area, Lithuania, 1931-1936 * 254 

Prices, Germany, Sept. 1, 1936 .. 239 
Pears: 

Exports to Canada, Italy, 1936 .. 246 
Imports, Canada, 1935,1936 246 

Plums: • • • 

Exports to Canada, Italy* 1936 .. 246 
Imports, Canada, 1935,1936 246 

potatoes; 

' Area, ' Lithuania, 1931-1936 254 



' Production, Netherlands, 1935, 1936 234 

Rye: • 

' Area; ' ...... 

Danube Basin, 1935,1936 237 



Lithuania,- 1931-1936 254 

Exportable surplus, Danube Basin, 

1935-36, 1936-37 . 238 

Prices, Germany, Sept.- -1, 1936 .. 239 
Production: - 

Danube Basin, 1935,1936 237 

Specified countries, 1935,1936. 235 
Stocks, Danube Basin, July 31,1936 238 
Sugar beets, production, 

Netherlands, 1935,1936 234 

Tobacco; 

Production, New Zealand, 1935-36 244 
Trade, New Zealand, 1935,1936 ... 244 
Fneat : 

Area, Lithuania, 1931-1936 254 

Crop conditions, Canada, 

August 1936 236 

Market conditions: 

China, Aug. 14, 1936 236 

Japan, Aug. 1, 1936 237 

Prices: 

Germany, Sept. 1, 1936 239 

Shanghai, Aug. 14, 1936 236 

Specified markets, 

Aug. 15, 1936 252 

Tokyo, Aug. 1, 1936 237 

Production, specified countries, 

1935,1936 235 

Shipments, principal countries, 

Aug. 15, 1936 .' 256